So let’s look at the probability that none of the 23 people in the room share the same birthday. For two people, the probability that the second person doesn’t have the same birthday as the first is 364/365. Then the probability that those two are different and that a third doesn’t share the same birthday as either of them is 364/365 × 363/365. Likewise, the probability that those three have different birthdays and that the fourth does not share the same birthday as any of those first three is 364/365 × 363/365 × 362/365. Continuing like this, the probability that none of the 23 people share the same birthday is 364/365 × 363/365 × 362/365 × 361/365 … × 343/365.
This equals 0.49